Paperback, eBook
140 drawings and 134 color photographs
234 x 156
12 November 2018
Handspring Publishing

£36.00 GBP / $47.00 USD

, Anatomy, Biophysics, Chiropractic, Massage Therapy, Osteopathy, Physical Therapy, Sport and Fitness

Biotensegrity – Second edition

The structural basis of life

£36.00 GBP / $47.00 USD Free delivery in the UK and USA

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Graham SCARR

Graham Scarr is a chartered biologist and osteopath with a particular interest in structural mechanics.

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The author describes the second edition of this groundbreaking book not as an instruction manual but as a response to the frequently asked question: ‘What is (bio)tensegrity?’. Biotensegrity is an evolving science which provides researchers, teachers, and practitioners across a wide range of specialisms including all bodyworkers and movement teachers with a deeper understanding of the human body and therefore the ability to develop their clinical practice and therapeutic effectiveness in light of this understanding. This book explains the basic principles of biotensegrity and explores our understanding of anatomy and physiology in the light of the latest research findings.

New features of the second edition include:

  • Now in full color throughout
  • Expansion of the developmental and therapeutic aspects of biotensegrity to consider:
    • A more thorough look at life’s internal processes
    • Closed kinematic chains as the new biomechanics
    • Embryological development as an evolutionary process
    • The human body as a constantly evolving system based on a set of unchanging principles
    • Emergence, heterarchies, soft-matter and small-world networks
    • A deeper look at what constitutes the therapeutic process


Chapter 1 • Tensegrity

Chapter 2 • Simple geometry in complex organisms

Chapter 3 • The balance of unseen forces

Chapter 4 • The problem with mechanics

Chapter 5 • The autonomous cell

Chapter 6 • The twist in the tale

Chapter 7 • The ease of motion

Chapter 8 • The ‘hard’ and the ‘soft’

Chapter 9 • A closer look

Chapter 10 • ‘Complex’ patterns in biology

Chapter 11 • Biotensegrity: a rational approach to biomechanics

Chapter 12 • Biotensegrity: the structural basis of life

Appendix 1 • Tensegrity models

Appendix 2 • Muscle volume and crossed helical fiber angle

Appendix 3 • The questionable hydrostat

Appendix 4 • The avian lung

Appendix 5 • Closed-chain kinematics and embryological development

Reviews of Biotensegrity 1st Edition

‘Well written and superbly illustrated.’ JW (

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